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Free indirect discourse

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Free indirect discourse

Free indirect speech, free indirect discourse involves both a character's speech and the narrator's comments or presentation, or direct discourse and indirect discourse. Famously utilized by James Joyce, free indirect discourse is a more comprehensive method of representation -- one which many times makes indistinguishable the thoughts of the narrator and the thoughts of a character. Thus, the method typically privileges the past tense, yet cannot be discerned through merely grammatical indicators. ( Source: http://narrative.georgetown.edu/wiki/index.php/Free_indirect_discourse ) (e)

From Wikipedia

Free indirect discourse / free indirect speech is a style of third-person narration which uses some of the characteristics of third-person along with the essence of first-person direct speech. (It is also referred to as free indirect discourse, free indirect style, or discours indirect libre in French.) / What distinguishes free indirect speech from normal indirect speech is the lack of an introductory expression such as "He said" or "he thought". It is as if the subordinate clause carrying the content of the indirect speech is taken out of the main clause which contains it, becoming the main clause itself. Using free indirect speech may convey the character's words more directly than in normal indirect, as devices such as interjections and exclamation marks can be used that cannot be normally used within a subordinate clause. ( Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_indirect_speech )

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